Flunitrazepamalso known as Rohypnol among other names,  is a benzodiazepine used to treat severe insomnia and assist with anesthesia. It was patented in and came into medical use in In countries where this drug is used, it is used for treatment of sleeping problemsand in some countries to begin anesthesia.
Adverse effects of flunitrazepam include dependence, both physical and psychological; reduced sleep quality resulting in somnolence ; and overdoseresulting in excessive sedation, impairment of balance and speech, respiratory depression or coma, and possibly death. Because of the latter, flunitrazepam is commonly used in suicide.
When used in pregnancy, it might cause hypotonia. Flunitrazepam as with other benzodiazepines can lead to drug dependence. Abrupt withdrawal may lead to a benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome characterised by seizurespsychosisinsomnia, and anxiety. Rebound insomniaworse than baseline insomnia, typically occurs after discontinuation of flunitrazepam even from short-term single nightly dose therapy.
Flunitrazepam may cause a paradoxical reaction in some individuals causing symptoms including anxiety, aggressivenessagitationconfusiondisinhibitionloss of impulse controltalkativeness, violent behavior, and even convulsions. Paradoxical adverse effects may even lead to criminal behaviour. Benzodiazepines such as flunitrazepam are lipophilic and rapidly penetrate membranes and, therefore, rapidly cross over into the placenta with significant uptake of the drug.
Use of benzodiazepines including flunitrazepam in late pregnancy, especially high doses, may result in hypotonia, also known as floppy baby syndrome. Flunitrazepam impairs cognitive functions. This may appear as lack of concentration, confusion and anterograde amnesia.
It can be described as a hangover -like effect which can persist to the next day. The combination with alcohol increases these impairments. Partial, but incomplete tolerance develops to these impairments. Benzodiazepines require special precaution if used in the elderly, during pregnancy, in children, in alcohol- or drug-dependent individuals, and in individuals with comorbid psychiatric disorders. Impairment of driving skills with a resultant increased risk of road traffic accidents is probably the most important adverse effect.
This side-effect is not unique to flunitrazepam but also occurs with other hypnotic drugs. Flunitrazepam seems to have a particularly high risk of road traffic accidents compared to other hypnotic drugs. Extreme caution should be exercised by drivers after taking flunitrazepam.Flunitrazepam is marketed by Roche under the trade name Rohypnol. It is a powerful hypnotic drug that is a benzodiazepine derivative.
It has powerful hypnotic, sedative, anxiolytic, and skeletal muscle relaxant properties. Flunitrazepam is commonly prescribed for the treatment of insomnia.
Insomnia can be described as a difficulty falling asleep, frequent awakening, early awakenings or a combination of both. Flunitrazepam is a short-intermediate acting benzodiazepine and is sometimes used in patients who have difficulty in maintaining sleep. Intermediate half life benzodiazepines are also useful for patients with difficulty in maintaining sleep eg loprazolam, lormetazepam, temazepam and may be preferable to long half life benzodiazepines which typically cause next day sedation and impairments.
Hypnotics should only be used on a short term basis or in those with chronic insomnia on an occasional basis. The drug is sometimes used as a date rape drug commonly referred to in street slang as a "roofie". Rohypnol's medical use is as a pre-operation anaesthetic or strong sleeping pill, but stronger doses can bring on amnesia. It takes effect very quickly - sometimes as quick as 10 minutes after being taken - and reaches its peak eight hours later when it can render a person totally unconscious.
It's about ten times stronger than Valium. Coming in the form of a tasteless and odourless pill which is easily ground down into powder, rohypnol has gained notoriety as the 'date rape' drug, after victims have been incapacitated and sexually assaulted after having their drinks spiked.
All traces of the drug disappear after 24 hours making prosecution difficult. Please note that rohypnol is not the only drug associated with date rape and there have been cases linked to GHB and other sedative drugs.
Rohypnol has also been used in combination with other drugs to enhance the effects of low grade heroin, to mellow the buzz from crack and heroin, and to soften comedowns.
The drug has also acquired a reputation as a party drug, sometimes dubbed the 'love drug'. This is due to its claimed aphrodisiac qualities and because some users say that it gets you more drunk and keeps you that way longer. In many cases, victims are even unaware that assaults have taken place until their symptoms are recognised or their memory returns.
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It's a very nasty drug. Be very wary of accepting opened drinks from strangers or people you don't trust, even if they are only soft drinks.
If you feel odd, nauseous or drunk after only a couple of drinks, leave immediately and go to a place of safety. See: drug assisted sexual assault - advice on prevention. Health risks: Used on its own, Rohypnol is unlikely to be fatal, but when combined with other drugs such as alcohol and cannabis the risk increases greatly - as the drug suppresses the central nervous and respiratory systems, there's a chance that you could stop breathing.
Other side effects include hallucinations, vertigo, skin rashes, stomach problems and changes in libido. Detection periods: Rohypnol passes out of the system in 24 hours.
In the US recent legislation has made it a Class A drug. Rohypnol is a tranquilizer about ten times more potent than Valium. The drug is available as a white or olive-green pill and is usually sold in the manufacturer's bubble packaging. Users crush the pills and snort the powder, sprinkle it on marijuana and smoke it, dissolve it in a drink or inject it. Rohypnol has been used to commit sexual assaults because it renders the victim incapable of resisting, giving it the reputation of a "date-rape" drug.
Rohypnol users often describe its effects as "paralyzing. A person can be so incapacitated made unable to act they collapse. They lie on the floor, eyes open, able to observe events but completely unable to move.
Afterwards, memory is impaired and they cannot recall any of what happened. The person experiences loss of muscle control, confusion, drowsiness and amnesia. Rohypnol is sold in Europe and Latin America as a sleeping pill, but it is illegal in the United States. Effects of Rohypnol Rohypnol is a potent sedative. The physical effects of the drug may be noticeable within twenty to thirty minutes after ingestion.Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease caused by progressive dopamine brain cells loss.
Symptoms of Parkinson's disease are correctable to an extent. Periodic limb movement disorder PLMD is a sleep disorder which causes repetitive cramping or jerking of the legs, resulting in disturbance of sleep. Spinocerebellar ataxia SCA is a progressive, neurodegenerative, genetic disease, which has no cure and treated only symptomatically. Disclaimer - All information and content on this site are for information and educational purposes only.
The information should not be used for either diagnosis or treatment or both for any health related problem or disease. Always seek the advice of a qualified physician for medical diagnosis and treatment. Full Disclaimer. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. Information about drug Ropinirole includes cost of the drug and the type of drug - tablet, capsule, syrup, cream, gel, ointment, liquid or injection.Vb net sha256
To view the price of the drug, click on the brand name. The generic Ropinirole is manufactured by one company. Medindia's drug directory has currently 25 Brands of Ropinirole listed.
New generics and brands are constantly being updated as and when they are approved by drug controller and available in the pharmacies.
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Pregnancy Confirmation Calculator. Recommended Reading. Parkinsons Disease Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease caused by progressive dopamine brain cells loss. Periodic Limb Movement Disorder Periodic limb movement disorder PLMD is a sleep disorder which causes repetitive cramping or jerking of the legs, resulting in disturbance of sleep.
Spinocerebellar Ataxia Spinocerebellar ataxia SCA is a progressive, neurodegenerative, genetic disease, which has no cure and treated only symptomatically.Rohypnol is an intermediate-acting benzodiazepine with general properties similar to those of Valium diazepam.
It is used in the short-term treatment of insomniaas a pre-medication in surgical procedures and for inducing anesthesia.Dell c1760nw raspberry pi
Due to the strong amnesia produced by the drug, victims would have limited or no memory of the assault. Rohypnol depresses central nervous system activity and brain function. This depressed CNS activity manifests as sedation, sleep, muscle relaxation, and reduced anxiety. When mixed with alcohol, another CNS depressantblackout, stupor, respiratory depression, and death are more likely to occur. However, the sedative effects of Rohypnol are approximately 7 to 10 times stronger than Valium.
The action of Rohypnol appears 15 to 20 minutes after administration and last approximately four to six hours. Some residual effects can be found 12 hours or more after administration. Amnesia is an expected pharmacologic effect of benzodiazepines. Rohypnol causes partial amnesia ; individuals are unable to remember certain events that they experience while under the influence of the drug. However, this effect is particularly dangerous when Rohypnol is used illicitly to aid in sexual assault.
Victims may not be able to clearly recall the assault, the assailant, or the events surrounding the assault. Rohypnol can be taken by mouth as a whole tablet, it can be crushed and snorted up the nose, or dissolved in a liquid prior to drinking.
Rohypnol may also be used with other drugs of abuse, such as alcohol or cocaine for various effects. Rohypnol can increase the intoxication of alcoholor may be used to lower the irritability and anxiety linked with excessive cocaine use binging. Schedule IV drugs are considered to have a lower abuse potential but can lead to physical or psychological dependence. If Rohypnol exposure is to be detected, urine samples need to be collected within 72 hours of consumption and subjected to sensitive analytical tests.
Very often, biological samples are taken from the victim at a time when the effects of the drug have already passed and only residual amounts remain in the body fluids. These residual amounts are difficult, if not impossible, to detect using standard screening assays available in the United States.
Due to this, it is difficult to estimate the number of Rohypnol — facilitated rapes in the United States. The problem is compounded by the onset of amnesia after ingestion of the drug, which causes the victim to be uncertain about the facts surrounding the rape.
This uncertainty may lead to critical delays or even reluctance to report the rape and to provide appropriate biological samples for toxicology testing. Rohypnol is no longer available legally in the United States.
Rohypnolpreviously available as a white tablet that dissolved without color, taste, or smell is now formulated as an oblong caplet that is light green with a blue core. The manufacturer instituted this change to help identify tampered drinks at clubs. When dissolved in clear liquids the blue core will turn the clear liquid to blue. However, when dissolved in darker-colored liquids, the blue dye may not be noticeable.
Generic versions of Rohypnol may not contain the blue dye. While Rohypnol has become widely known for its use as a date-rape drugit is abused more frequently for other reasons. It is abused by high school students, college students, street gang members, rave party attendees, and heroin and cocaine abusers to produce profound intoxicationboost the high of heroinmodulate the effects of cocaine.
Teenagers and young males age 13 to 30 have been noted as the primary abusers of Rohypnol.A drug in simple terms would be a substance which alters bodily reactions.Mikuni carb leaking overflow
Drugs are primarily used in the pharmaceutical industry, and these are classified under prescription drugs. India is unfortunately sandwiched between few of the countries who are the biggest producers of illicit opiumwhile itself being known to be the largest manufacturer of licit opium. And this opium is channelled more often than not into the international drug market. As a citizen of this country, and more importantly as a student of Law, I was rather astounded when I went through the list of drugs banned in India, as uploaded by the Central Drugs Standard Control Organization.
Understandably, these drugs have certain medical uses, and cannot be banned per se, but it is still very disturbing to know that the regulations on the manufacture and supply of these dangerously addictive substances are not very stringent. Under the Narcotics Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, offenders related with drug peddling, can be given bails. This has only paved way for small dealers to make it big in the drug market. It is only fair for the Government to work on making the existing laws more stringent, or perhaps introduce new laws that will address the current issues effectively.
Apart from this, it is a personal opinion that children, or more appropriately, teenagers and young-adults must be counselled and taught the ill-effects of these life-altering substances. It is seen that such topics are avoided in everyday households, either to due to the unwillingness of parents to discuss such issues, or due to ignorance.
Teenagers and youngsters too, unable to cope with the various pressures they are subjected to, find solace in drugs, not willing to consider how drastically it will affect their lives in future. There is, I emphasise, no shame in admitting that they are having problems coping with the daily demands of peers, educational institutions and demanding parents and girlfriends or boyfriends, even. This is where counsellors need to step in and play their part, wisely offering alternative methods for the youth to channelize their depressed or low energies.
Schools too, must undertake such programs and every educational institution and all firms and industries, I recommend, must have a counsellor on their list of employees.
The major drawback, I believe lies not only with the Government agencies, but also the society. We need to evolve as a society, and stop pressurizing teenagers with unnecessary issues. If they can conceive it and believe it, they can achieve it.
They must know it is not their aptitude but their attitude that will determine their altitude. Start Writing. By Youth Ki Awaaz in Society.
Ephedrineearlier derived from the plant Ephedra, is an essential component in many Chinese medicines.Ios 13 reminders not syncing outlook
Considering that the earlier methods are now not financially viable, manufacturers are shifting to the synthetically produced versions. Ephedrine is said to help in the treatment of asthma and bronchitis, and is also said to help in weight loss, while contributing well in controlling nausea at sea, due to which it is treated still as a prescription drug in the US whose sale is regulated but not banned.
Deep are the cons associated with the continued use of Ephedrine, some of the side effects being delusions, paranoia, hallucinations, dry mouth, gastrointestinal problems and skin problems such as acne. It is further disturbing to know that Ephedrine in some forms has a chemical composition similar to that of methamphetamine, touted to be the most dangerous drug in the modern world. This, he stated after a consignment of US-bound Ephedrine was caught in August Ephedrine is manufactured in private labs in India, albeit under Government regulations, and it is suspected that these labs have been leaking it to the International drug market at phenomenally high prices.
While a kilo of the government-regulated Ephedrine would fetch no more than two thousand rupees in India, countries across the seas are willing to pay millions of dollars, and this further incites the manufacturers to go rogue.
Another commonly found synthetic drug is Ketaminewhich is used medicinally in anaesthesia. Its use has now been controlled due to the hallucinations it results in, and is now limited to emergency situations or when there is no reliable ventilator backup. Researchers are hopeful that it may prove to be the solution to Heroin and alcohol addiction.
Ropinirole Price of 25 Brands
There is a very unique factor separating Ketamine from other anaesthetics, and that is the fact that it is more of a stimulant than a depressant, but doctors have preferred to use it less often after patients who were anaesthetized reported of having seen God. Nausea, dizziness, hypertension, memory problems, psychomotor retardation, etc are some of its known after effects.
In IndiaKetamine is not a banned drug, and restrictions have been placed only its export. It is manufactured under license in Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra. Its value, while around thirty thousand Rupees in the country, can be easily sold for nearly ten lakh rupees abroad.
Indian college students, disheartened by the cost ineffective Heroin and Ecstasy have chosen to switch over to crystal Meth, which can be easily manufactured from Ephedrine and Pseudoephedrine. India produces over metric tons of the latter two drugs, most of which is exported to Canada, Germany, Mexico and the US, and meth is extracted from them.Rohypnol remains readily available, mainly through pharmaceutical operators located in Mexico, especially Tijuana. Rohypnol is marketed by Hoffman-La Roche Inc.
One of the significant effects of the drug is anterograde amnesia, a factor that strongly contributed to its inclusion in the Drug-Induced Rape Prevention and Punishment Act of Anterograde amnesia is a condition in which events that occurred while under the influence of the drug are forgotten. Rohypnol is available as a. Hoffman-La Roche phased out the 2-milligram dose tablet from to and is currently phasing out the round, white 1-milligram tablet.
The licit market for the drug is currently supplied with a 1-milligram dose in an olive green, oblong tablet, imprinted with the number The new tablet includes a dye that, according to Hoffman-La Roche, will be visible if it is slipped into a drink. In addition to the chemically induced amnesia, Rohypnol often causes decreased blood pressure, drowsiness, visual disturbances, dizziness, confusion, gastrointestinal disturbances, and urinary retention.
Users of the drug report effects similar to intoxication, yet claim that they wake up the next morning without a hangover. Adding to the popularity of the drug is the perception that the drug cannot be detected in a urinalysis. While the drug can be detected 2-milligram doses can be detected within 72 hours of ingestionit does break down very quickly, and many commercial toxicological screens do not detect flunitrazepam.
Brief Description Club drugs tend to be used by teenagers and young adults at bars, nightclubs, concerts, and parties.
Club drugs include GHB, Rohypnol …. DrugFacts: Lessons from Prevention Research. Revised March The principles listed below are the result of long-term research studies on the …. Thank you for sharing your info. I truly appreciate your efforts and I will be waiting for your further post thank you once again. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Leave a Reply Want to join the discussion? Feel free to contribute!
Leave a Reply Cancel reply Your email address will not be published. Drug Street Names.Rohypnol is a tranquilizer about ten times more potent than Valium. A person can be so incapacitated made unable to act they collapse. They lie on the floor, eyes open, able to observe events but completely unable to move. Afterwards, memory is impaired and they cannot recall any of what happened.
The person experiences loss of muscle control, confusion, drowsiness and amnesia. Rohypnol is sold in Europe and Latin America as a sleeping pill, but it is illegal in the United States.
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